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Paul R. Sotherland

Professor of Biology
Associate Provost for Teaching, Learning and Assessment

MS & PhD Colorado State University; BS Carroll College

Tel: 269-337-7012; FAX: 269-337-7508
Office: Dewing 212F; Email:


2011-present   Associate Provost for Teaching, Learning and Assessment
2006-present Professor, Department of Biology, Kalamazoo College
1991-present   Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Kalamazoo College
1985-1991   Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Kalamazoo College
1984   Instructor, Department of Physiology, State University of New York at Buffalo
1982-1985   Post-doctoral Fellow (with Hermann Rahn and Charles Paganelli), Department of Physiology, State University of New York at Buffalo


Research Interests
My research interests are primarily in ecological and developmental physiology of oviparous vertebrates, with an emphasis on energy balance and mass balance of organisms. The majority of my time has been spent on the ecological physiology of avian eggs; most recently I've been interested in the size and composition of eggs and how these factors influence size and composition of hatchlings. I am fascinated by how these relationships vary along the altricial/precocial continuum. My current projects include studies of eggs and hatchlings of leatherback turtles, abiotic conditions in leatherback turtle nests, and a new collaboration on the ontogeny of the cardiovascular system in birds.


First Year Seminar: Human Natures
BIOL 101: Biology: Stuff You Need to Know
BIOL 123 Form and Function with Lab
BIOL 222 Vertebrate Biology with Lab
BIOL 376 Human Physiology with Lab


Honors and Awards
Frances Diebold Award for outstanding contributions to the Kalamazoo College Community, presented by Student Commission, 2006
Outstanding First-Year Student Advocate Award (First Annual), Kalamazoo College, 2004
Florence J. Lucasse Lectureship for Excellence in Teaching, Kalamazoo College 1997-1998
Kurt Kaufman Associate Professor of Biology, Kalamazoo College 1995-1998
NIH National Research Service Fellowship, Department of Physiology, S.U.N.Y. at Buffalo, 1984-1985


Recent Grants
Teagle Foundation, 2005, $300,000. Collaborative grant involving Kalamazoo College, Colorado College and Earlham College to assess how and what their students learn
NSF-MRI, 2001, $77,108 – Micro-Oxymax Respirometry System and environmental chambers
Anonymous donor, 2000, $100,000 – 31 acre addition to Lillian Anderson Arboretum


Selected Publications
(* denotes undergraduate coauthor)

Nelson, T.C.*, K.D. Groth*, P.R. Sotherland.  2010.  Maternal investment and nutrient use affect phenotype of American alligator and domestic chicken hatchlings.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 157: 19-27.

Dzialowski, E.M., W.L. Reed, and P.R. Sotherland.  2009.  Effects of egg size on Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) egg composition and hatchling phenotype.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 152: 262-267.

Sotherland, P., A. Dueweke, K. Cunningham, and B. Grossman.  2007.  Multiple drafts of a college’s narrative.  Peer Review  9(2): 20-23.

Wallace, B.P., P.R. Sotherland, P.S. Tomillo, R.D. Reina, J.R. Spotila, and F.V. Paladino. 2007 Maternal investment in reproduction and its consequences in leatherback turtles.  Oecologia 152: 37-47.

Wallace, B.P., P.R. Sotherland, J.R. Spotila, R.D. Reina, B.P. Franks, and F.V. Paladino. 2004. Biotic and abiotic factors affect the nest environment of embryonic leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77:423-432.

Dzialowski, E.M. and P.R. Sotherland. 2004. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype. Journal of Experimental Biology 207:597-606.

Reed, W.L., A.M. Turner, and P.R. Sotherland. 1999. Consequences of egg size in the Red-winged Blackbird. Auk 116:549-552.

Finkler, M.S.*, J.B. Van Orman, and P.R. Sotherland. 1998. Experimental manipulation of egg quality in chickens: influence of albumen and yolk on the size and body composition of near-term embryos in a precocial bird. J. Comp. Physiol. 168:17-24.

Booth, D.T., and P. R. Sotherland. 1991. Oxygen consumption, air-cell gas tensions and incubation parameters of Mute Swan eggs. Physiol. Zool. 64:473-484.

Sotherland, P.R., J.R. Spotila, and C.V. Paganelli. 1987. Avian Eggs: barriers to the exchange of heat and mass. J. Exp. Zool. Suppl. 1:81-86.

Sotherland, P.R., and H. Rahn. 1987. On the composition of bird eggs. Condor 89:48-65.